The immunoenzymatic blood test islaboratory method used in immunology in determining the quantitative and qualitative content of various viruses, compounds, macromolecules and other. The research is based on a special reaction of individual antigens-antibodies. Immunoenzyme analysis of blood is widely used in modern medicine. The formed complex is revealed when special biochemical reactions and enzyme are used as a label.
Immunoenzyme analysis of blood allows you to identifyconcentration of antibodies. With the use of this study, it becomes possible to determine immunological complexes, immunoglobulins, hormone level, the concentration of other biologically active components. For amniotic fluid, amniotic fluid, blood, vitreous humor, and cerebrospinal fluid are used.
In some cases, enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)is classified according to the type of immunochemical interaction. This is considered the first stage of the study, on which the binding of the element being determined. In the case of detection of only specific antibodies and antigen, the method is considered non-competitive. If the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the first stage revealed a simultaneous content of the test compound and its analogue, the compound is immobilized in the solid phase or labeled with the enzyme, it is considered competitive.
The ELISA method has found wide application not only inmodern medicine, but also agriculture, biological industry, as well as scientific research. It should be noted that, like other immunochemical research methods, this analysis gives false-negative and false-positive results. It depends on a large number of factors. For example, when anti-immunoglobulin G targets antibodies to immunoglobulin M, a rheumatoid factor occurs.
It should be noted that the ELISA method today hasa lot of advantages. Mainly, they are manifested in objectivity due to the automated recording of results, speed and convenience of work. One of the most important factors in the early diagnosis of diseases and their prognosis is the possibility to study immunoglobulins of different classes. In modern medicine, enzyme immunoassay is considered to be the main method of laboratory studies of pathologies.
ELISA blood refers to the category of serological studies. It is especially important if it is impossible to isolate the pathogen.
When specific antibodies are detectedincreases their titles. The study of paired sera is carried out for diagnostic purposes with an interval of two to three weeks. The definition of classes of immunoglobulins allows a clear description of all stages of the infectious process. Dynamic control of their titre allows also to apply the treatment taking into account the established stage.
Identification of antigens is also important. Their definition is carried out at the very beginning of the disease. This allows for rapid diagnosis. Immunoenzyme analysis of blood, the decoding of which is made in quantitative terms, allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.
ELISA is one of the main studies in the detection of STDs (venereal diseases). In this case, it is necessary to emphasize its importance in the detection of HIV and syphilis.
The role of causative agents of sexual infections provokingpathological changes in different departments of the reproductive system of women, has increased significantly in recent times. The most dangerous today is the so-called infection mix. In this case, there are several pathogens. This greatly complicates the diagnosis. In this case, ELISA is used to conduct a full-fledged study.