Vaginal microorganisms are vaginal florathe organism on which the woman's health depends. To study it, take a gynecological smear, in the decipherment of which, normally lactic bacteria should predominate over pathogenic in the microflora of the vagina.
Before you pass the analysis you need to prepare:
- 14 days before the study, do not take antibiotics;
- for three days - do not administer vaginally drugs that have a contraceptive, antiseptic and antibacterial effect;
- for two days - not to enter into sexual intimacy;
- a day before going to the doctor not to take a bath;
- not douche;
- before a visit to the doctor to conduct hygienic procedures of the genitals;
- three hours before the procedure, do not empty the bladder;
- Do not take the test during menstruation.
In the case of permanent medical treatment a woman should be warned by a doctor and tell what medications she is taking.
Failure to comply with these simple rules will distortresults, which, in turn, will affect the diagnosis of pathology. It is desirable for all women to undergo bacteriological examination once every six months.
Collection of biological material
To conduct research and decipher the gynecological smear is taken from the urethra, cervical canal and vaginal walls. Explore the microflora and determine the degree of purity.
The procedure for taking material is carried out with a spatula or special blade and is performed in the following cases:
- preventive examination;
- prophylactic medical examination;
- complaints of women: a burning sensation and itching of the genitals, pain near the pubic area, excretion.
In order to take a smear common gynecological(the transcript is given below), a gynecological mirror is inserted into the woman's vagina, through which the cervix and the vaginal walls are visible. In girls and women who do not have sexual relations (virgins), regardless of the age category, this tool is not used.
Gynecological smear: transcript. Norms
In the female genitourinary system, the norm isapproximately 40 different types of microorganisms, most of which are lactobacilli. A healthy woman normally determines up to 95% of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid maintains an acidic environment in the vagina and rapidly suppresses pathogens.
Another part of the flora is Klebsiella, intestinalsticks, corynebacteria, staphylococci, gardnerelles, mycocci, peptostreptococcus, eubacteria and others. The presence of a minimum number of candida fungi is also acceptable.
Causes of abnormalities
In some cases, the immunity decreases (menopause,pregnancy or other hormonal failure, stressful situations), in this case the doctor can prescribe a gynecological smear for the general flora. Decoding it will show how the quantitative composition of bacteria has changed. Normal microflora decreases, and as a consequence, the susceptibility to genital tract infections increases due to an increase in opportunistic microorganisms: streptococci, Escherichia coli, Staphylococci. With a weak immune system, disease-causing organisms multiply with great speed and actively suppress milk microorganisms. As a result, pathology develops: gardenelosis, candidiasis or vaginal dysbiosis, which provokes:
- inflammation of the appendages and uterus;
- ectopic pregnancy;
- the birth of a premature baby;
What is the purpose of the analysis
Research and decoding of gynecologicalstroke allows you to timely diagnose various diseases of the sexual sphere of a woman, as well as assess microbial contamination, including the qualitative and quantitative composition of microorganisms, the state of the epithelial tissues of the vagina, the presence of inflammatory processes.
This type of study is called the gold standard for the detection of bacterial vaginosis.
Dysbacteriosis of the vagina: the main causes
If a gynecological smear was taken and its interpretation showed the presence of dysbiosis, the reasons could be as follows:
- hormonal imbalance (a small amount of estrogen);
- metabolic disease;
- long-term use of antibacterial agents of a wide spectrum of action;
- inaccuracies in observing the rules of personal hygiene of the genitals.
In the laboratory of a medical organization, a gynecological smear is examined. Explanation:
- Leukocytes. For the cervical canal, the presence of up to 30 cells in the field of vision is considered normal, for the urethra within 5, for the vagina - no more than 10. A small number of white blood cells protects the genitals, and their growth indicates the presence of inflammation: urethritis, colpitis, cervicitis. In the case of the acute phase of the inflammatory process, the number of leukocytes exceeds 100 cells in the field of view.
- Slime. This indicator is normal, if there is no urethra in the urethra, a small amount of mucus is permissible in the vagina. During menstruation, it is allowed in the cervix. When mucus is detected in the urethra, inflammation is suspected.
- Epithelial cells, which should normally benot more than 15. In the vagina - a flat epithelium, in the cervical channel - cylindrical cells of the epithelium. If you took a gynecological smear and decoded it showed the presence of epithelium in excess of the norm, this indicates an acute or chronic inflammatory process in the genitals.
- Microorganisms. The vagina is normally present: cocci flora in women during the menopause and in girls who have not reached puberty; lactobacilli - in women of reproductive age. In the cervix of the uterus, bacteria should be substantially less than in the vagina. The microflora in the urethra should be absent. If there is a pathogenic or conditionally pathogenic flora, then the dysbacteriosis of the vagina or inflammation is diagnosed.
- Trichomonas, gonococcus, key cells, the detection of which implies the following diseases: trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, gardnerellez. In the norm they should not be.
- Fungus Candida. They reveal mycelium and spores. The latter assume the carriage of this type of fungus and may be present in a practically healthy woman. The appearance of a mycelium means that a woman in an active phase has an infectious process caused by candidiasis or a thrush.
Degree of cleanliness of gynecological smear: transcript
According to the degree of purity of the gynecological smear, and there are only four of them, the presence of the inflammatory process in the female body is determined:
- The first. This degree of purity occurs in two categories: in practically healthy women (there are no chronic and acute inflammatory diseases of the genital organs) and in girls who do not have sex. Indicators: lactobacilli is sufficient, acidic pH of the vagina, leukocytes 0-5.
- The second. At this degree of purity, therapy is not prescribed. Preventive measures are recommended to increase the immune status in order to prevent the development of inflammatory processes. Indicators: vaginal microflora is mixed (there are both normal and pathogenic microbes), acid pH of the vagina, leukocytes five to ten, mucus and flat epithelial tissues moderate amount.
- The third is that in the genitalswomen have an inflammatory process and require immediate treatment. Indicators: Lactobacilli are practically absent, virulent microflora and epithelial cells are increased, slightly acid or alkaline pH of the vagina.
- The fourth degree is a high level of danger. Based on the results of laboratory studies, the doctor prescribes an additional examination to exclude the dangerous, including oncological diseases of the sexual organs of a woman. Indicators: lactobacilli are not sown, alkaline pH of the vagina, microflora is completely pathogenic, leukocytes are huge.
Gynecological smear and its interpretation on the microflora allows early diagnosis of the disease, timely treatment and prevent the development of a chronic process.
Smear on flora during pregnancy
This analysis in pregnant women is taken for registration in the women's consultation, as well as at 30 and 38 weeks to control the purity of the vagina throughout the pregnancy.
Women planning children are recommendedtake care of yourself and yourself, and the health of the baby's future, and pass a gynecological smear to the flora before the expected pregnancy. Explanation: Normally 95% of all bacteria are lactobacilli, 5% is a conditionally pathogenic flora that does not multiply in an acidic environment. Under certain conditions, when the pH shifts towards the alkaline environment, the pathogenic bacteria begin to actively spread. One of the causes of changes in microflora is pregnancy.
Throughout the period of bearing the babywomen have another hormonal background. There is an increased production of the hormone progesterone, and estrogens - the minimum amount. Thanks to such a rebuilding of the body, the number of Dodderlein sticks (lactobacilli) increases approximately tenfold to protect the fetus from infection during pregnancy.
Thus, it is very important before planningpregnancy to undergo the necessary laboratory tests and obtain a transcript of the analysis of the gynecological smear, including the degree of purity of the vagina. Otherwise, the opportunistic flora will get a boost to activation and provoke various diseases. Some diseases: vaginosis bacterial, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis - loosening and weakening the walls of the vagina, and during the birth of the baby there may be breaks.
Cytomorphological analysis of smears
This type of study is prescribed afterwas prescribed gynecological smear on the flora. The interpretation (norm or pathology) of the results will help in the formulation of an accurate diagnosis. With the help of this analysis, oncology or dysplasia of the cervix, papillomavirus infection is detected.
Biomaterial for atypical cells is taken from the urethra and cervix, its vaginal part. There are several types of smears:
- Type 1 means that the condition of the cervix is normal.
- Type 2 is the presence of an inflammatory process or an easy degree of dysplasia. In this case, the doctor prescribes anti-inflammatory drugs, and after a full course of treatment, repeated analysis for cytology.
- Type 3 is severe or moderate dysplasia. When this result is obtained, an additional examination is appointed, namely a biopsy of cervical tissue and their cytomorphological examination, colposcopy, with the help of which foci of epithelial tissue damage, their localization and character are revealed.
- Type 4 is characterized as a precancerous condition. As with the third type, a new examination and consultation of the oncogynecologist is recommended.
- Type 5 is an oncological disease. All examinations and treatment takes place in a specialized medical institution.
Preparation for cytological research
The informativeness and accuracy of the result depends on the correct preparation:
- Do not take an analysis until the fifth day of menstruation and no later than five days before the next menstrual cycle;
- 24 hours before sampling the biomaterial, it is not recommended to use medicinal products, including contraceptives;
- At least a day before going to the doctor should refrain from sexual intimacy.
Thus, a gynecological smear on the flora(the transcript of which is given above) and a smear on cytology allows to reveal various diseases of the female sexual sphere and with correctly prescribed therapy gives a great chance for the fastest recovery.