Angina (acute tonsillitis) - acute infectious,inflammatory disease with typical changes in lymphoid tissue in the region of the nose and pharynx or larynx. The most frequently observed lesions of the palatine tonsils.
Pathogens - various microbes and viruses, more oftentotal streptococcus, less often staphylococcus, pneumococcus, yeast-like fungi and others. In the emergence of angina, an important role is played by influenza viruses and adenoviruses. Factors predisposing to the onset of the disease are general and local cooling or, conversely, overheating, as well as a dusty atmosphere, hypovitaminosis, decreased immunity, and sometimes a trauma to the tonsils. The disease develops, as a rule, in the autumn and spring periods.
Infection can be exo- (external) andendogenous (from within). At the same time, there are 2 ways of transmission of infection: alimentary and air-drop. Infection occurs usually in close contact with a diseased sore throat. The disease can occur with the presence in the cavity of the pharynx or mouth inflammation foci - gum disease, carious teeth. The source of infection are also purulent inflammation of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
With angina, malaise occurs, the generalweakness, pain when swallowing, chills, fever and headache. The duration of the disease depends on the form of angina, but on average it lasts 5-10 days.
The most common vulgar (banal, normal) angina. These include catarrhal, follicular purulent angina, lacunar purulent angina and phlegmonous.
Catarrhal angina has the easiest clinicalcurrent compared to others, but with it possible various complications. It is manifested by weakness, perspiration, dryness in the throat, fever rising to 38 C, gradually a pain in the throat. In young children, vomiting is possible. There is hyperemia of the palatine tonsils and palatine arch.
Follicular purulent angina is characterized bythe most pronounced clinical picture. It is characterized by an acute onset of the disease and an increase in temperature to 40 C˚. There is weakness, sweating, loss of appetite, pain in the joints. The nearest lymph nodes are greatly enlarged and painful on palpation. There is hyperemia and swelling of the palatine tonsils, arches and palate. Visible festering follicles, in the form of rather small bubbles of white and yellow. Lacunar purulent angina has almost the same symptoms. It forms yellowish-white deposits, localized in the mouths of lacunae, which, merging, can cover the entire surface of the tonsils. These raids are easily removed. The division of these two anginas is conditional, since they can be present simultaneously.
Angina phlegmonous is a purulent, acuteinflammation of the amygdala or nearby cellulose. It is most often a complication of the previously described angina. Most often this is a one-sided process. There is a severe pain in the throat when swallowing, the child refuses to take even liquid food, there is a sharp headache, weakness, nasal, the body temperature rises to 39 C, abundant saliva is released. The regional lymph nodes are greatly enlarged and painful on palpation. The soft palate is hyperemic and edematic on one side. The palatine tonsil is displaced to the midline and slightly downward. Because of the swelling of the soft palate, the tonsil can often not be examined. The mobility of the soft palate becomes significantly limited, which leads to the leakage of liquid food from the nose. If the sore throat is not treated, then on the 5th-6th day there may be an abscess in the cellulose - a peritonsillar abscess.
Frequently repeated angina contributes to the development ofdiseases of the kidneys, liver, meningitis, rheumatism and heart diseases. Of the local complications - acute laryngitis, otitis media, laryngeal edema, phlegmon neck, acute cervical lymphadenitis, abscess.
For rinsing, warm solutions are usedpotassium permanganate, furacilin, soda, sage and chamomile (1 tablespoon per 1 glass of water), antibiotics. To small children who do not know how to gargle, give as often as possible (every 0.5-1 hour) to drink tea with lemon, fruit juices or just warm water. Lubricate the throat is contraindicated, since there may be an exacerbation. Food should be vitaminized, hot, too cold or hot food is excluded. It is useful to drink abundantly, including milk and mineral alkaline water. With lymphadenitis - warming compresses on the neck area at night, it is best to alcohol (1 part of alcohol diluted in 2 parts of water) and warm bandages during the day. You can do steam inhalation. Medications should be applied depending on the pathogen and the nature of angina strictly individual.
Purulent angina in children, treatment
Antibiotics for purulent sore throat are prescribedit is necessary, since there is a pronounced intoxication. Most often penicillins, and with allergies to it - antibiotics erythromycin series, cephalosporins, tetracyclines or levomycetin. When prescribing antibiotics, it is obligatory to give children multivitamins and preparations to normalize the intestinal microflora (for the prevention of dysbacteriosis).
Children are very susceptible to angina, so the patientThe child must be in a separate room from the other children, where frequent cleaning and airing is necessary. It is necessary to allocate a separate dish, which must be boiled or poured with boiling water. It is necessary to completely exclude contact with other children.