Basal facial skin: symptoms, stages and methods of treatment

The most common type of cancercutaneous pathology is the basal cell on the face, which is a basal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma. The tumor originates in the germ epithelial layer. The most characteristic signs for a basiomy are slow growth and very rare metastasis. Most oncologists prefer to attribute such a tumor process to a half-malignant neoplasm.

basal cell photo

Description of pathology

The basal cell carcinoma differs in itspersistent recurrent course. Quite often there is an invasion of almost all skin layers, including the deepest ones. This process can cause cosmetic functional defects on the skin surface. Diseases are exposed to people of different ages, however, according to statistics, every fourth person before and after 50 years who is sensitive to sun exposure and has light skin is at risk.

The provoking factors

Factors that can provoke the development of basal cell on the face include:

  • solar exposure;
  • ionizing factor;
  • exposure to substances of a chemical nature, for example, arsenic, hydrocarbon derivatives;
  • frequent injury of the skin.

Basal cell carcinoma originates in the deep layer of the skin. After this begins its gradual germination to the superficial areas of the skin.

Symptoms

Basalioma (photo below) can manifest itself in several clinical forms:

  1. Ulcers and ulcers. This form is most often localized on the inner surface in the corners of the eyes, on the eyelid surface, in the nasolabial folds. Over the skin, such a basal cell acts as a red or pink dense nodule formation. The surface of the formation is shiny. Gradually increasing, the knot begins to ulcerate, a greasy plaque is formed on the bottom of the ulcer. On the surface of the node, characteristic vascular enlargements (telangiectasia) are formed. It is not excluded also the appearance of the crust, which is surrounded by a dense pearl roller.
  2. Proborating basal cell on the face. This form of basal cell carcinoma is quite rare, it is characterized by very rapid infiltration. Appearance of it practically does not differ from the nodular-ulcer form of basal cell.
    what is the basal cell
  3. Exophytic, warty, papillary. These basal cells on the skin surface appear as dense rounded nodules, which in appearance resemble cauliflower. For this form is not peculiar to infiltration.
  4. Large-node nodular. This tumor is characterized by a single localization of the nodular neoplasm. Symptoms of telangiectasia are clearly visible on the surface.
  5. Pigmentary basal cell (photo is in the article). The appearance of this new growth is very similar to melanoma. The main difference is that the node has a dark internal pigmentation, surrounds its pearl bead.
  6. Atrophic scarring. The shape of such a basalioma is flat, ulcerated, surrounded by a dense roller that has a pearly color. The characteristic difference of this form of basal cell carcinoma is that the erosive spot grows at a time when scarring occurs in the center.
  7. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma. Is prone to scarring and ulceration. The initial stages of development are characterized by the appearance of small dense knots, which are quickly transformed into flat dense spots that have vascular translucence.
  8. Pagetoid superficial tumor. This form of basal cell on the face is characterized by the appearance of many neoplasms that have a flat shape. They reach a fairly large tumor. In this case, the plaques have raised edges that do not rise above the skin. The color can be represented by any shade of scarlet. Quite often it is accompanied by the appearance of a variety of diffuse processes, for example, in the form of a cyst in the area of ​​the lower jaw.
    basal cell stage
  9. Turban basalioma. It affects only the scalp. Its color is violet-pink, the base is wide, about 10 centimeters. The process of development takes a long time. The clinical picture is benign.

Stages of basal cell carcinoma

Classification of pathology by stages is basedon the characteristics manifested in the clinical picture, such as the area of ​​the lesion, the depth of germination, signs of destruction, and others. In accordance with these characteristics, it is common to distinguish four stages of basal cell carcinoma:

  • The initial stage of basal cell is characterized by the appearance of neoplasms, the size of which is not more than two centimeters. They are locally limited and did not have time to germinate into neighboring tissues.
  • Knot tumors, the size of which is more than twocentimeters, refer to the second stage of the disease. There are signs that the basal cell proliferated into all layers of the skin, but the fatty tissue remained unaffected.
  • Neoplasms the size of three or more centimeters refer to the third stage. At this stage of development, the tumor sprouts up to the bone.
  • Basalomas of the fourth stage are neoplasms that have affected bone and cartilaginous tissue.

Symptoms of the initial stage of basal cell carcinoma

A characteristic feature of the tumor is itslocation in different areas of the neck and face. It is localized on the skin of the nose, which is also not uncommon. At the beginning, the tumor manifests itself in the form of small and painless nodules, in color coinciding with the skin. Most often they appear on the forehead or in nasolabial folds and resemble ordinary acne.

At the initial stage of basal cell looks likesmall pearly nodular formation. After a while it starts to get wet, and on the surface begins to form a crust, through which you can distinguish the ulcerated surface.

Pain and discomfort are absent. Such nodules can appear in whole groups and then merge into one. As a result, an angiogenic plaque having a lobed surface is formed. That's what a basal cell is.

Characteristic feature

A characteristic feature is on the surface of the plaquethere are telangiectatic signs, that is, the divorces formed by small capillaries. After a while, along the perimeter of the formation, a bubble edging is formed, which then becomes a dense structure. It is such a roller is a characteristic difference of basal cell carcinoma. If you try to stretch the skin at the site of the tumor, you will clearly see the ring of inflammation, which has a red color.

The disintegration of tissues on the surface of the tumor provokeserosive or ulcerative process. If you remove the crust covering the ulcer, under it a depression in the form of a crater or uneven bottom is exposed. Such tumors can be partially scarred, covered with crusts, but, despite this, continue to grow slowly, without causing any uncomfortable sensations.

Slow growth can detect the disease in 80% of patients. At the same time, if the disease is detected in a timely manner, then the predictions are very favorable: in 98% of cases the disease can be completely cured.

Treatment of basal cell on the face with folk remedies is applied, but only at the initial stage and in combination with other methods.

Late period of the disease

The late period of carcinoma is characterized bysprouting it into deep layers of the skin, as a result of which a depression is formed in the form of a crater. The structure of ulceration becomes dense and ceases to shift to the side when viewed. The bottom of the wound becomes fat and shine, the ulcer itself is surrounded by distinctly visible capillaries.

As we have already mentioned, basal cell carcinomadevelops over a long period and is characterized by growth in depth, rather than by area. In this regard, after the treatment of basal lymphomas in the late stages, a very visible cosmetic defect remains in patients, which in the subsequent is difficult to correct.

In many patients, carcinoma is recurrent.

basal cell

The risk of basal cell carcinoma and the need to remove it

A long process of tumor development provokesits penetration deep into the body, as a result of which soft tissues, bones and cartilages are damaged and destroyed. Cell growth of the neoplasm occurs along the nerve fibers, inside the layers of tissues and over the surface of the periosteum.

If the basal cell carcinoma is not removed in a timely manner, the destruction will affect not only the tissue structures.

Complications

Basalioma is able to disfigure and deformnose and ears as a result of destruction of bone and cartilaginous tissue. The course of the disease can be aggravated by a purulent process, to which various infections can be attached. In addition, it is possible:

  • damage to the mucous membranes in the nose;
  • transition of the tumor process into the oral cavity;
  • defeat and destruction of the skull bone;
  • defeat of orbits;
  • the appearance of blindness and deafness.

A special danger is the implantation of a tumor into the skull, which occurs through natural cavities and openings.

In such cases, inevitablelesions of the brain and subsequent death of the patient. Despite the fact that basal cell is considered to be a nonmetastatic tumor, there are about two hundred described cases of the fact that she still gave metastases.

Consider how the basal cell treatment is performed on the face.

treatment of basal cell on the face

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

Treatment methods include:

  • Medicamental therapy with the help of localChemotherapy with the use of cytostatic drugs, for example, "Cyclophosphamide". Application of "Ftoruracil" and "Methotrexate" can also be used.
  • Surgery. The basal face is completely removed. At the same time, the adjacent tissues are seized by about 1-2 centimeters. In the event that the cartilage has been damaged, it is also subject to resection.

What is the use of ointment from basal cell skin?

At the initial stage or with the recurrence of pathology, the following ointments can be used:

basal cell anemia

  • "Omain Ointment".
  • "Solcoseryl."
  • "Kuraderm cream".
  • "Iruksol".
  • "Metwix."

Other treatments

Contraindications to surgery - a complex background pathology, old age, inability to use anesthesia:

  • Cryodestruction. Allows removal of the basalioma with liquid nitrogen. Destruction of tumor tissue occurs as a result of exposure to too low a temperature. This technique is suitable only for the destruction of small lesions that are located on the legs or hands. If the tumor has a large size, deep infiltration or is located on the face, this method is contraindicated.
  • Radiation therapy of basal cell skin. Can be used as an independent method of treatment, or in combination with others. It can be used to remove formations that have a size of not more than 5 centimeters and located on the surface. In this case, the development period should be early, but localization does not matter. This technique is acceptable in the treatment of elderly patients and in the case of an advanced form of the disease. Therapy can be complex, mixed with the drug form of treatment.
  • Removal with carbon dioxide or neodymium laser. The use of this technique is possible if the lesions are small in size. The method is highly efficient, the effectiveness reaches 85%.
  • Photodynamic therapy. It is carried out by affecting the basal laser radiation. A patient is first required to be administered a photosensitizer.

radial therapy basal cell skin

What is photodynamic therapy?

The mechanism of action of the latter method is as follows: tumor cells accumulate a photosensitizer, as a result of exposure to it by a laser, it provokes the development of necrosis of basal cell carcinoma tissues. Cancer cells die without causing damage to connective tissues. This method in modern medicine is the most popular and widespread. It is often used in the removal of both primary tumors and recurrent, especially those located on the skin of the face.

Forecast

Despite the recurring nature of this speciestumor, the prognosis is most often favorable. Achieve a positive result is possible in 80% of cases. If the neoplasm has a local and not neglected form, then timely diagnosis and the beginning of therapy can cure it completely.

We examined in this article what is a basal cell.

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