The main diagnostic method of detectionearly precancerous diseases and oncological pathologies of the cervix is today a cytological examination of smears. This type of analysis is extremely effective, as it allows us to detect various changes in the epithelium of the endo- and ectocervix at the earliest stage in a timely manner. According to WHO statistics, oncology of the cervix is one of the three most common diseases among all the diversity of female malignant tumors. This pathology occurs in about 25 women from every hundred thousand.
The emergence of malignant neoplasmsthe cervix is affected mainly by women between the ages of 35 to 55 years. That is why cytological examination of smears is incredibly important. It is recommended that it be performed annually for women who have an intense sexual life. Experts call infection with various varieties of the papilloma virus, smoking, chlamydia and herpes, chronic use of chronic diseases, prolonged use of various contraceptives, frequent changes in sexual partners, lack of vitamins A and C in the body, and immunodeficiency, leading risk factors for the formation of cancer pathology of the cervix.
Now in many developed countries there arespecial preventive and diagnostic programs (necessarily including a cytological examination of smears), which can prevent the development of cervical cancer. The Russian anti-cancer society recommends that women over 25 years of age undergo such a preventive examination at least once every three years. Such mandatory periodicity can significantly reduce the risk of invasive oncological pathology.
Cytological examination of smears givesPossibility with a high degree of reliability to study all features of the cellular structure of the cervical surface and respond in time to pathological changes in its structure. The method itself is based on a thorough analysis of the cyclic changes in the vaginal epithelium. Cytological examination of cervical smears, which are taken in accordance with the requirements, from three different sections of the vagina during gynecological examination with a spatula and a special dilator mirror, provides a microscopic study of the relationship of the three types of cells (surface, intermediate, parabasal) and their morphological characteristics.
This method demonstrates the largestsensitivity to various precancerous changes in the structure of the flat epithelium. The pathological transformation of the glands of the cervical canal appears somewhat worse. The main disadvantage of this method of analysis is the impossibility of determining adenocarcinoma, which often appears in the above channel and is the cause of cancer pathology of the cervix in almost 20 percent of cases, according to the latest statistical data.
Cytological examination of the smear,prepared from cell suspension, in modern gynecology is carried out with the help of a special automatic analyzer. The results of the so-called Maryland system are evaluated, the main advantage of which is that it allows to clearly distinguish between benign changes (infectious and inflammatory nature, reactive and reparative nature) and truly atypical phenomena. Various changes in the structure of the smear are often caused not only by neoplastic lesions of the cervix. Sometimes they are caused by dysplasia, oncological pathologies of the vulva and (occasionally) urinary tract.