How bronchoscopy of the lungs and bronchi is made: reviews. Is it painful to do bronchoscopy?

How is bronchoscopy done? Few know, but this word sounds awesome. And not in vain. After all, this is a very complicated procedure with certain risks. Conduct it in a sterile operating room, observing all appropriate precautions.

how do bronchoscopy

How do bronchoscopy of the lungs

Feedback from patients who have been through this procedure,about how bronchoscopy of the bronchi is done, soothe. The most important thing is that it does not hurt at all, it does not last long, and with proper conduct it does not leave any negative consequences.

Huge diagnostic and therapeutic optionsbronchoscope with more than compensate the patient's unpleasant sensations during the procedure. And yet, what is diagnostic and medical bronchoscopy: how do each of these procedures?

At the moment, bronchoscopy is the most effectiveand a visual method for examining and carrying out certain medical measures of the internal cavity of the lungs, bronchi and trachea. After the introduction of an optical bronchoscope inside, the doctor on the monitor can observe a full picture and make an accurate diagnosis.

In addition to the diagnostic, a therapeuticbronchoscopy. Feedback from former patients is direct evidence that the therapeutic properties of this procedure are very effective: the rapid removal of foreign bodies and pathological substances from the bronchi, the introduction of necessary medications.

Types of bronchoscopy

how bronchoscopy of the bronchi is done

How do bronchoscopy are hard, and what is it?is different from flexible? The rigid (rigid) bronchoscope is a system of hollow, stiff tubes with a flashlight and camera on one side and a manipulator on the other. The procedure with a rigid bronchoscope is required to detect a foreign body in the bronchi or the airways or to stop bleeding from the respiratory organs.

A hard bronchoscopy is performed under anesthesia. Because the general anesthesia, the patient does not experience unpleasant sensations, does not move and does not prevent the doctor from concentrating.

Often a hard bronchoscope is used by ambulance doctorscare and resuscitation teams in the provision of first aid, for example, a drowned person. This is a quick and effective way to remove fluid from the lungs. When a variety of pathologies are detected during the diagnosis process, a rigid bronchoscope allows the doctor immediately to eliminate them on the spot. With flexible bronchoscopy, there is no such possibility, the doctor will have to reintroduce the device into the airway of the patient.

bronchoscopy as do

In the absence of direct indications to the hard typebronchoscopy doctors are trying to use an elastic fibrobronhoscope, in this case, most often enough local anesthesia. It is a smooth tube from an optical cable with an LED, a video camera on one end and a control lever on the other.

Although a flexible type of bronchoscopy is consideredmainly diagnostic, a special catheter inside the fibrobronhoscope will, if necessary, remove the fluid from the bronchi or give them medicines. It easily and with minimal traumatism of the mucous membranes penetrates into the most distant parts of the respiratory organs.

Anesthesia: general or local?

General anesthesia can be prescribed with flexible bronchoscopy depending on the patient's psyche (childhood, unstable psyche, state of shock and stress).

Local anesthesia implies the use ofsolution of lidocaine in the form of a spray, they are irrigated first with nasal sinuses, nasopharynx, then, as the apparatus moves, the larynx, trachea and bronchi. Lidocaine not only relieves pain, but also suppresses vomiting and cough reflex. Only local anesthesia is recommended in old age or if the patient has severe cardiovascular disease.

Conditions of bronchoscopy application

Diagnostic bronchoscopy is required in the following cases:

  • with tuberculosis;
  • smoking experience from 5 years;
  • suspected lung cancer;
  • atelectasis of the lung;
  • bleeding;
  • obstruction of the respiratory system;
  • prolonged cough of unknown origin;
  • pathology, revealed on radiographic images (inflammation, nodes, compaction).

how do bronchoscopy of the lungs

In addition, therapeutic bronchoscopy is prescribed:

  • to extract foreign bodies from the respiratory system;
  • removal of neoplasms that block the airways;
  • stent placement on the respiratory tract when they are blocked by tumors.

how do bronchoscopy of lung responses

Preparation of the patient for the study

What is bronchoscopy and how to prepare for it? As a rule, patients learn about this only after realizing the inevitability of the procedure and reading all sorts of literature about how bronchoscopy is done. The positive effect of the procedure depends on the qualification and responsible approach of the doctor and careful preparation of the patient.

It will be necessary first to pass several testsand pass the examination (general and biochemical analysis of blood, urine, functional pulmonary test, chest X-ray, cardiac electrocardiogram and some others, according to the patient's disease and the purpose of the study). The doctor will hold a conversation with the patient, tell you where the bronchoscopy is done, how the examination will be conducted, and what should be prepared morally in advance.

In addition, he will offer to fill out a questionnaire, which should indicate:

  • available heart disease;
  • problems with blood coagulability;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • preparations for which an allergic reaction is possible;
  • taken medications;
  • chronic and acute diseases;
  • the state of pregnancy and other characteristics of your body, which can affect the course of the bronchoscopy procedure.

With a planned examination, the patient is not allowedtake food, alcohol, smoke for at least 8 hours. The stomach of a person must be empty. It is acceptable to take in advance laxatives or to put a cleansing enema.

Patients with bronchial asthma are allowed to takein the operating inhaler. Many patients experience and are very nervous before the study. In this case, a person is recommended to take a mild sedative. It is very important emotional state of the patient - that during the procedure he was calm and relaxed - otherwise the doctor will be difficult to make smooth and very precise movements on which the effectiveness of the research depends.

Is it painful to do bronchoscopy

Contrary to expectations, the process ofbronchoscopy is painless. When inserted into the tube, a lump in the throat, nasal congestion, numbness of the palate and difficulty in swallowing are felt. The patient's breathing is not difficult, since the diameter of the tube is very small.

where bronchoscopy is done

After the procedure

The patient is fully recovered and canleave the hospital building, take food, water as early as 2-3 hours after the end of the procedure. Smoking and taking alcohol is undesirable during the first two days. If sedatives were taken, then on this day it is better not to drive and drive the vehicle, as they dull the attention, speed and reaction of the person.

Contraindications

Like any other medical procedure, bronchoscopy has a number of contraindications.

1. Relative, if the case is urgent and there is no possibility to diagnose by another method:

  • pregnancy (2nd and 3rd trimester);
  • advanced diabetes mellitus;
  • enlarged thyroid gland;
  • alcoholism;
  • bronchial asthma.

2. Absolute, if irreversible harm to health is possible:

  • the stage of decompensation of one of the diseases of the cardiovascular system of a person (myocardial infarction, aortic aneurysm, heart disease, heart rhythm disturbances, hypertension);
  • respiratory insufficiency or obstructed patency of the bronchial system;
  • thrombosis of blood vessels - brain or pulmonary;
  • psycho-neurological diseases of the patient (epilepsy, schizophrenia);
  • pain in the abdominal cavity of various origin.

is it painful to do bronchoscopy

Possible complications

The procedure for bronchoscopy is sufficientIt is difficult, if properly carried out of the unpleasant sensations, there is only a small sore throat. However, from accidents, no one is immune, and in the process complications may appear:

  1. Mechanical damage and even puncture of the lung, bronchus and trachea can lead to bleeding.
  2. Before the procedure without failan allergic test is performed, for this patient a small dose of anesthetic is administered. But sometimes it happens that the sample is passed successfully, and the allergy is manifested already during the procedure, with increasing dose. Possible laryngeal edema and anaphylactic shock.
  3. The larynx of each patient is individual, sometimes because of anatomical features the bronchoscope can damage the vocal cords.
  4. If the recommendations of the doctor are not followed after the procedure, there may be a significant deterioration in health and bleeding.

So, having studied all the possible indications,contra-indications and risks, the doctor-therapist or lung specialist determines the expediency of bronchoscopy, discusses it with the patient and, with his written consent, appoints the day and hour of the procedure.

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