The scourge of modern society ... The lack of work for most people is tantamount to a personal and social crisis. And the problem concerns not only young people and not only elderly able-bodied citizens. The struggle against unemployment for most states is a priority task, on the successful solution of which the well-being of society as a whole depends.
Fortunately, both politicians and sociologists realize thatit is better to fight the causes than to cope with the consequences. If the fight against unemployment turns out to be ineffective, this phenomenon avalanche pulls for itself all sorts of crisis situations. However, how does the state, which itself tries to solve the problem of over-inflation of the bureaucratic apparatus, reduce all possible budget payments, can cope with the task? Only at first glance it seems that the best ways to combat unemployment are to finance and support those who can not find a job. In fact - and this is clearly seen in the example of developed European states - this policy only strengthens the layer that prefers to live at the expense of budgetary benefits and does not take any drastic measures to improve its life situation.
What are the reasons for the lack of jobs? First, the reduction in production. Therefore, the fight against unemployment should be aimed at restoring or retraining those enterprises that are incapable of independently creating profit. First of all, we are talking about former state property.
Secondly, the labor market is largelydepends on the immigration climate in the country. That is why the state policy of combating unemployment is often closely connected with restrictions for visitors. As Russians and Ukrainians go to the West in search of a better share, so come from Central Asia to Russia for work. Of course, it can not be said that only immigrants take jobs from the local population. However, in conditions of tough competition, entrepreneurs are trying to reduce the cost of production, primarily due to hired employees. And immigrants are an ideal low-cost labor force.
The next step towards improving efficiencyemployment services and public policy should be activities aimed at activating the population. Most help is required for people with low or highly specialized qualifications. The fight against unemployment in this case should be aimed at obtaining additional knowledge, skills and skills. Public employment services can also help create and develop their own business, provide subsidies.
Finally, there are several groups of people,which due to age or psychological characteristics can not find application to their own forces and capabilities. For them, the optimal solution, which can provide a fight against unemployment, is counseling, trainings for personal growth. After all, after numerous failures their self-esteem falls, faith in one's own strength decreases. The so-called phenomenon of learned helplessness is developing, and entrepreneurs are not ready to hire long-term unemployed people. Among those who need special assistance from the state, not always financial or intermediary, are persons under 25 and over 50, single parents, citizens without qualifications or secondary education, women returning to the labor market after maternity leave, released from prison , disabled people and people with disabilities.
In a number of countries, the fight against unemployment isalso in the commercialization of public employment services or the transfer of job placement to outsourcing. An important advantage of this approach is the introduction of strong economic incentives to improve the efficiency of services.
An interesting solution is to attractvolunteers from among successful professionals in the work with the unemployed population. Unemployed from disadvantaged families can consult with mentors on issues related to finding a place of employment, self-presentation, career growth. The mentoring program does not require almost any cost - because volunteers do not receive rewards for their activities. But thanks to this decision, the fight against unemployment also acquires a different perspective - the creation and strengthening of social capital, connections between people of different backgrounds and groups.