Fernand Braudel - one of the most famous historiansFrance. His idea of taking into account geographical and economic facts in the comprehension of historical processes produced a revolution in science. Most of all Braudel was interested in the birth of the capitalist system. Also, the scientist was a historiographic school "Annals", which was engaged in the study of historical phenomena in the social sciences.
Fernand Braudel was born in 1902, on August 24, inthe city of Lumeville, near Verdun. He was the son of a village teacher and spent some of his childhood on a farm with his grandmother. But stay in nature was short-lived - in 1908 Brodeli moved to Paris.
In 1913, the future historian entersVoltaire Lyceum, which successfully graduates in 1920, and continues his studies at the Sorbonne. This famous University of Paris, a young man graduates in 1923. At this time, he had already decided to link his fate with teaching. Braudel really wanted to get a place in the high school Bar-le-Duc, which was near his home. However, these hopes were not destined to come true. And Fernand went to the Algerian college as a teacher. This time proved to be very fruitful for his scientific research, and in 1928 his first scientific article was published. At this time he meets Paula, his future wife. In addition, the historian managed to pass military service in Germany, in the French group of occupants, from 1925 to 1926.
Nevertheless, he is striving for a scientific career. The historian decides to write a dissertation on the history of Spain, despite the recommendations of the Sorbonne professors to take the topic related to Germany. In 1927, the explorations of Braudel begin. He turns to historical materials stored in the libraries of Salamanca, visits famous places in the Mediterranean, for example the city of Dubrovnik in Yugoslavia, where there is much evidence of the 16th century.
In 1932, Fernand Braudel returned to Paris andbecomes a teacher of the Lyceum Condorcet, and later - the lyceum of Henry IV. At this time, his friendship begins, which will result in many years of cooperation with another professor of history - Lucien Febvre. A huge role will also be played by the magazine created last in 1929, "Annals of Economic and Social History." This publication was not just scientific, but in some way revolutionary in nature, because it subjected the revision of research methods, subjects and the very view of history as a science. Fevre proposed, studying history, to pay attention not only to wars and monarchs who appeared on the throne, but also to the everyday life of ordinary people in peacetime. These views seriously influenced Braudel and in many ways became the impetus for his own research.
In 1935, Braudel received an offer to becomeprofessor at the University of Sao Paolo and left for Brazil. However, he stayed there for a short time and in 1937 returned to his homeland, and the following year he took a place in the Paris Practical School of Higher Studies. At this time, his friendship with Fevren becomes stronger, and Braudel decides to write a book under the guidance of a friend dedicated to the medieval period of the Mediterranean. However, the outbreak of war prevented these plans.
In 1939, Braudel is in the ranksthe French army. And the next year the historian is captured and spent all the war years in Nazi camps, first in Mainz, and then in a concentration camp on the Baltic coast.
Fernand Braudel, whose books are now usedpopular not only among historians, but also among ordinary readers, gained its freedom only after the end of World War II and immediately returned to France. Here, at home, he took the post of teacher of the Sorbonne. In 1947, a friend of Braudel, Febvre, founded the fourth section of the Practical School of Higher Studies devoted to the economic and social sciences. The foundation of the section was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. This moment will also play an important role in the biography of Braudel himself.
In 1949, the historian left the Sorbonne and became the head of the department at the College de France. Here he has been working for quite a long time.
In 1956, Lucien Febvre dies, and Braudelbecomes the president founded by his friend of the fourth section of the Practical School. This post will be held by the historian until 1973. In addition, Braudel is also the chief editor of the magazine, founded by Fevre, which by that time was called "Annals. Economy. Of the Society. Civilization. "
In 1958, Brodel publishes a methodological article, which will become fundamental to his theory. The publication was called "History and Social Sciences".
In 1959, the historian has an idea to openscientific center and library. He even came up with a name for this place - "House of Sciences of Man." Braudel literally caught fire with this idea, but for its implementation it was necessary to find a considerable sum of money. This he managed only in 1970 - the sponsor was the Ford Foundation. After the opening of the "House", Braudel becomes the chief administrator of this institution.
Does not leave and research activityFernand Braudel. Capitalism is his main passion for several years. The historian was seriously interested in the causes of this phenomenon. And the most valuable in this aspect is that Braudel looked at this phenomenon at an unusual angle. As always, he attached great importance to "inessential" for the traditional science of details - the lives of ordinary citizens.
In 1967 he appeared on the shelves of bookstoresthe first part of one of the main works of those written by Fernand Braudel. "Material civilization" was a success with historians, but the author himself was not entirely satisfied with the published version. Therefore, he takes up the revision of the book. Hard work ends in 1979 with the publication of the final version of the entire three-volume work.
In 1970, Braudel left the post of chiefeditor of the "Annals" because of disagreements with the new employees. He remains only a nominal participant of the leading group of the publication. However, immediately finds himself no less worthy occupation Fernand Braudel. Books, scientific articles, leadership of the "House of Science" - this is what the historian devotes his time to. At the same time, he begins to work on the multi-volume work "The Identity of France." However, unfortunately, this work will not be completed.
The famous historian ended his career in the south of France, in a small town called Cote d'Azur, on November 28, 1985.
Being in German captivity, Fernand Braudelmanaged to finish his thesis devoted to the Mediterranean in the era of Philip II. This work was protected by a historian in 1947 and opened the way to a great science. Five years spent in captivity, he worked without any book sources, making notes on scraps of paper.
Braudel had the gift of finding talented scientists. So, he managed, you can say, to bring up such celebrities in the world of science as M. Ferro, G. Duby, F. Fourier, J. Rivel and others.
This work is the last work of the historian. Simultaneously, he was conceived as the beginning of a large series of books devoted to his native France. This part of the cycle consists of two volumes. The first one is called "Space and history", the second one is "People and things".
This work of Braudel can be called uniqueencyclopedia of France. Here you can find detailed information about the history, culture, nature of the country, about the national character and originality of its inhabitants. Reading this book, you can only admire how thoroughly Brodel studied his homeland.
This is the main work of Braudel, covering the temporarythe interval from the XV to the XVIII century and describing the economic history of the whole world. It was this work that glorified the historian. In addition, the work is called the highest achievement of the French historical school "Annals", as it embodied the basic principle of the school - to study history, it is necessary to synthesize all aspects of society.
Of course, such a huge work could not be publisheda single book, so he was divided into three large parts by Fernand Braudel. "The structure of everyday life" - this is the name of the first volume. It details the study of the economic aspect of human life in the era of fateful changes and the emergence of capitalism. The book is devoted exclusively to material life. After reading it, you can understand how people lived during the Middle Ages and the birth of the New Time, not only in Europe, but also beyond. I took care of the examples of Fernand Braudel. "The structures of everyday life" abound with various confirmations and excerpts from the treatises of those times, which facilitates reading and makes the book accessible to a wide range of readers.
This part is devoted to commercial activitiesThe Middle Ages. Braudel describes almost all aspects of this area: the work of peddlers, the specifics of long-distance trade, international exchanges, credit cantors. The historian focuses on how the work of these organizations influenced the life of society as a whole. Market economy is the main theme of this book.
This volume is the third part of the famoustrilogy, written by Fernand Braudel. "The Time of Peace" is a description of the entire world economic history. The author presents it as a succession of dominance of various worlds-economies, which are united by a single rhythm of time. He analyzes the reasons for the ups and downs of these economies, and also sets out the main hypotheses that were proposed in the previous parts.