The basic styles of speech in Russian are distinguished frommany of its varieties and consist of a colloquial kind of presentation and book (literary). The first is usually used orally, and the second - more often in written form, it contains still official, business, scientific, journalistic and artistic speech.
In the modern sense, the word "style" denotes the quality of the written, that is, the ability to express their thoughts in different ways, using a variety of linguistic means.
As a result, speech styles in Russian are not similar to each other. So, let's consider what each style of presentation is.
Conversational style is used in a casual andinformal environment for everyday communication in the family, at work or in a friendly conversation in the form of a dialogue. There is an exchange of information, thoughts, feelings about ordinary domestic issues. Characterized by emotionality, gestures and imagery. Words are used simple, neutral, often familiar and affectionate. Sometimes inserted phraseological units (for example, "from the pot two peaks").
Next, we will analyze the styles of speech in Russian, which refer to the literary form.
The scientific genre is used in scientific reports,journals, articles and dissertations for the purpose of presenting and explaining certain facts. Here professional and terminological vocabulary is used in strict logical sequence and objectivity. Another important feature of this kind is accuracy. It is worth noting that in the scientific style there is also a scientific popular (for the mass audience) and scientific and educational (for educational institutions) subspecies, which differ in the complexity of perception.
The official and business style can be found in the sphere oflegislation, administrative and legal activities, etc. It is presented in the form of laws, diplomatic documents, certificates, instructions and other business papers written in standard business vocabulary with established turnover. All information here must be stated accurately and do not allow for a double interpretation.
The official-business and scientific styles of speech in the Russian language are informative in nature and have a dry and concise content.
The publicistic method is used insocial and political literature (newspapers, reports, speeches on TV, radio, etc.). Its purpose is to convey socially significant information to influence the audience by persuading or inspiring certain ideas and motivating it to do something. Characteristic of him is recruiting, logical, imaginative and emotional.
Artistic style is different from everyone elseimagery and the use of a variety of expressive ways. All styles of speech in the Russian language, examples of which are often found in our daily life, are used in the artistic exposition. However, here they obey the aesthetic function and create a poetic image.
In addition to these styles, there are also functional types of speech, which determine the semantic content of the text (narrative, description and reasoning), but this is already the topic of another article.