Subjectivist school in sociology: the method of Lavrov

laurel method
From the point of view of the subjective approach, insociology, the individual is the only true measure of historical development, of the progress of society, and also it is the connecting link of the entire social process. These ideas were first put forward by PL Lavrov, who developed the doctrine of the society as a whole, the direction of its development and the laws of functioning. The method of Lavrov consists in considering all the above phenomena from the point of view of personality. The subject is the most important thing in the knowledge of the world. The latter is presented to man as a result of the methods of his cognition, which the subject himself exercises.

Basic Provisions

The subjectivist approach was developed primarily by Lavrov, PL and Mikhailovskii, N. K. This theory includes several components:

  • subjective method in sociology, its rationale, the definition on its basis of the subject of science;
  • identification of the determinants of the development of society;
  • a peculiar view of the causes and criteria of social progress;
  • personality, its role in history.

Substantiation of the subjective method

subjective method in sociology

Objective methods of cognition are inherent in the naturalsciences, whereas sociology should use a subjective approach. From this point of view, Lavrov's method was defined to the fore by personality, not by group or class. It is she who acts in society under the influence of subjective determinants, not external factors. Thus, a person can not be known by anyone other than as a subject by means of the principle of empathy. This means that the observer can put himself in the position of the observed, identify with himself and thereby understand and know.

Development of society and criteria for social progress

The subjective method in the sociology of Lavrov andMikhailovsky puts the personality in the center of society. Consequently, the latter progresses when the personality develops in it in the moral, mental and physical planes. The goals of society can be achieved only thanks to a person who in no way should be absorbed by the society. Thus, the method of Lavrov in sociology puts at the forefront the study of relationships between people, the search for the causes of such interaction as the only method of studying the history of mankind.

subjective method in the sociology of laurels
Personality as the driving force of history

How does the personality become the enginesocial progress and the ruler of the history of all mankind? Critical thought - this answer gives a subjective method of Lavrov. Personality, capable of critical thinking, are the engines of civilization. They are a minority in society, while other people must provide them with conditions for existence. Critically thinking minority determines the moral direction of society. These individuals should not be drowned out and suppressed, otherwise the society will simply perish. Thus, the main goals of the development of the society should be a self-fulfilling personality, the development of individuality and critical thinking. That is why social progress is characterized by the creation of relations between people, which contribute to the development of the individual in all its manifestations.

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