Any organization (enterprise) is located oris located, and also carries out the activity in the certain environment which, naturally, has huge and direct influence on this very activity.
The entire environment of the organization (enterprise) consists of two interrelated sets:
1. The internal environment.
2. The external environment.
The internal environment is within the organization(enterprise), within it, and has a direct and direct impact on the activities of the organization. Its elements together determine the potential, as well as the opportunities that the organization has. The study of the internal environment, as well as its analysis, allows you to identify the strengths and, necessarily, the weaknesses inherent in a particular organization (enterprise). It is under the control of the leadership of the organization.
The main elements of the internal environment are:
- organization and technology of production;
- organizational structure;
- managment structure;
- Organization finances;
- marketing activities;
- Organizational culture of the organization;
- staff, employees.
The external environment of the organization (enterprise) consists of elements that are outside of it, for that it is external.
Analysis of the external environment makes it possible to find out,what the organization can expect if it will work successfully. What problems will it expect if it can not completely prevent negative trends in its activities.
The analysis of the external environment shows that it consists of two large sets:
1. macroenvironment (indirect effect);
2. microenvironment (direct effect).
Often, the nature of the macroenvironment is non-specific and creates general conditions for the activities of the organization (enterprise) in the external environment.
Analysis of the external environment of the organization shows that the main elements of the macro environment are:
- the state of the economy;
- socio-economic policy of the state;
- progress (NTP);
- political factors;
- international events;
- socio-cultural factors (customs, traditions, habits, etc.).
Analysis of the external environment of the enterprise shows thatthe enterprise itself has practically no opportunity to interact with elements of the external environment. The indirect influence of the external environment affects the activity of the enterprise only in the future.
With direct impact, directly, factors affect the activities of the organization, and the organization itself can actively interact with the elements of this environment.
The main elements of the direct impact environment include:
- suppliers and intermediaries;
- state regulation.
Analysis of the external environment, the internal environment, in whichthe organization (enterprise) is located and functions, represents the initial process of strategic management. When implementing it, various methods and models are used to study the environment (internal and external) organization (enterprise). In particular, the STEP analysis is aimed at studying the medium that acts indirectly. Methods LOTTS and GAP, in fact, this is the same analysis of the external environment. They allow the organization to adapt to the demands of the external environment and narrow the gap between what you want to achieve and what is actually there. The PIMS method allows you to determine the quantitative impact of the marketing strategy on profit. Matrix McKinsey helps to assess how attractive the market is, the strategic position of the firm in this market, on the basis of which, recommendations on the strategy of action are given. Using the McKinsey model, you can analyze the internal environment of the organization, on the basis of which recommendations are offered on changing the elements of the internal environment in the process of implementing the strategy.