In extreme desert conditions, mercilessthe sun is always in abundance. What is the obvious shortage is water. The drying heat and insufficient amount of moisture prevent the development of a rich plant world, on which the life of all inhabitants of this area directly depends. The rainy season, which is allotted about two months, provokes a violent growth of vegetation and a green carpet can appear even on sand and clay surfaces.
It is during this period that desert animals develop their turbulent childbearing activity. Mammals bring offspring, birds and reptiles acquire nests and lay eggs.
Almost complete absence of moisture, severetemperatures and soil with practically no vegetation create certain limitations. How do animal deserts adapt to such intolerable conditions?
Sometimes the temperature on the surface of sand reachesalmost to 90C. For the inhabitants of these places this is a very serious problem. In addition, no animal can tolerate prolonged overheating. Many of them die from solar exposure.
Animals of the deserts escape from the scorching heat indifferent shelters. Many reptiles, invertebrates and mammals find refuge between the rocks, digging salvation burrows, and go hunting late at night. Some species are able to fall into anabiosis, rodents and reptiles in hottest time of year fall into a hibernation. Some animals in the desert spend most of their life underground. Most birds and ungulates migrate for this time to less hot regions. Someone finds a shadow of bushes, and someone climbs on a branch higher than the hot sand.
Tropic deserts are characterized by jerboas,mole rats, a volk of a family of meerkats, some types of hedgehogs, and feniks - small chanterelles. There are also large animals of the desert - representatives of mammals: desert cats, hyenas, cheetahs. The family of ungulates is represented by donkeys, mountain rams, antelopes, kulans, gazelles, gazelles and, of course, desert ships - camels.
Dromedar or single-horned camel is the bestis adapted to the extreme conditions of the given climatic zone. These animals in the desert are well adapted, thanks to their hump, which consists of fat deposits representing its food resources. They travel for a long time in the desert without water. This is facilitated by hooves, which are great for moving on quicksand. They are wide, flat, which helps to move the animal, despite its impressive weight.
With the help of thick lips and teeth, they easily chew even the toughest and thorny plants. Their life expectancy reaches 50 years.
Animals of the desert, who prefer to hunt in the afternoon, show their activity only in the early morning, while the soil is not yet heated. Then they hide in shady places.
Every animal finds an acceptablesource of moisture. Birds fly to large areas in its search, and for those who do not have this opportunity (antelopes, sandstones, ground squirrels) extract it from bulbs, rhizomes and green twigs.
Desert animals have specialphysiological characteristics and are adapted to the careful use of water. In addition, each of them is adapted to move along the hot and deep sand. Paws of mammals are strongly pubescent, the sole is protected by a thick, rigid hair brush. "Greben" and "mohnopod" jerboa precisely because of such features received their name. They perfectly run on sand dunes.
For different deserts,certain species of animals. For example, in the Sahara they are represented by mongooses, deserted hedgehogs, sandstones, sand foxes, jackals, caresses, baboons, hares and hinds and deer, there are about 300 species of birds. Unique Atacama deserts are inhabited by varieties of lama, some species of chinchillas, there you can find about 120 species of birds.