The concept of privatization implies alienationproperty belonging to state enterprises, organizations and institutions, as well as land and housing stock, which is in municipal or state property in favor of legal entities or individuals who are buyers under the law on privatization.
This process has several widows and types. Forms of privatization may differ in such types: privatization of communal property and state property, privatization of housing stock owned by the state, privatization of land.
Privatization is carried out to increaseeconomic and social efficiency of production. Thanks to privatization, funds are being attracted to structural reorganization of the economy. In addition, privatization pursues such goals as: attracting citizens to participate in the maintenance and preservation of housing, forming market relations, as well as stimulating the effective and rational use of land resources, and facilitating the development of entrepreneurial activities.
Depending on the tasks and objectives,described above, there are also appropriate forms of privatization, and the corresponding mechanisms for their implementation and executors. For example, the privatization of housing stock is carried out by authorized bodies under local authorities and enterprises and organizations that have a state housing fund.
Among this, the concept of the form of privatization can not bemention one of the most common forms - corporatization of enterprises. This mechanism of privatization becomes possible after the government adopts the relevant legislative acts and laws. As a rule, the essence of such laws is that the state legitimizes the process of corporatization or otherwise transforming state enterprises and institutions into open joint-stock companies.
For our country, this stage occurred innineties of the last century. According to the then reform economists, such processes were supposed to push the economy to development and rebuild it in response to new demands of market processes. What of this happened, probably, everyone remembers.
But scientifically or economically, joint-stock companies as a product of privatization are one of the most effective ways of integrating and concentrating capital.
However, taking into account different forms of privatization andmethods with the help of which it was conducted can not be said unequivocally, that in all countries where it occurred, the process passed positively and gave a significant impetus to the country's economy.
Particularly visible is the difference in the results of privatization inthe countries of Eastern Europe, which after the collapse of the USSR began to build a market model of the economy and in the countries of the former Soviet republics, where privatization also had to resolve questions about the revival and restructuring of the economy to new rails of market relations. However, if European countries have coped with the task at hand, then in the open spaces of the CIS, echoes of wild privatization from which a group of oligarchs won, are given up to this day. In addition, the timing of privatization in different countries is determined in its own way. And if this issue is not thought through and given away for free swimming, then the privatization of enterprises will grow into the buying up of assets of all enterprises and organizations that belong to the state in one hand, which can cause the monopolization of the goods market of a particular group.
In the process of privatization, the following categories of persons can participate:
Citizens of the country and foreign citizens, as well as persons without certain citizenship;
Legal entities that have registration in the territory of the country where privatization will take place;
Legal entities of other states, within the framework of laws and regulations.
But they do not have the right to be allowed to privatizepersons who work in the state property fund (and similar structures), the authorities themselves, as well as legal entities that in their property have a share of state ownership of more than 25% and other entities, the list of which is determined by special laws of the state.