Marketing is an important toolestablishing communication between the manufacturer and the buyer. The development of marketing concepts allows us to work out a number of ways to achieve commercial tasks important for the enterprise. There are several basic concepts on the basis of which each company makes decisions on demand management. The first marketing concept of marketing and management appeared more than 100 years ago, but in some conditions it still has not lost its relevance. Let's talk about the main modern marketing concepts and their specifics.
In the late 19th century, in connection with the growth of industrialproduction and competition in the markets of consumer goods there are prerequisites for the formation of marketing. At the beginning of the 20th century, he distinguished himself into an independent science of managing the actions of market participants in order to increase the profitability of the business. Later marketing is concretized as a set of measures for the interaction of the producer and the consumer. The marketing goal recognizes the need to satisfy the needs of the consumer and make profit. In the 1930s, the first theoretical positions of the new science began to form. General provisions on demand management are developed and basic marketing concepts are born. Marketing does not become a dry theory, it always remains to a greater extent a practical activity.
In the most general form, marketing is considered speciala kind of human activity that aims at studying and satisfying human needs. However, its main goal is to manage the market and demand in order to maximize the profits of the organization. Marketing, therefore, becomes one of the most important functions of management.
Entrepreneurs are constantly on the lookout fora new, optimal program of action that would help increase the profitability of the business. Of these needs, marketing and its concepts have grown. Philip Kotler, one of the world's top marketing theorists, argues that the marketing management concept is a new approach to doing business. Marketing concepts answer a strategically important question, which is the most important means and the possibility of making a profit. The answer to this main question is the essence of this phenomenon. At the same time, marketing concepts are not some abstract theories, but the most applied administrative decision.
The manufacturer of the goods in modern conditionsis forced to think permanently about how to sell it. Today, there are almost no empty markets, so everywhere you have to fight with competitors and look for techniques that would help increase sales. Proceeding from this, the main goal of the marketing concept is the formulation of tasks that need to be solved in order to reach the desired indicators. The concept of marketing allows the company to adapt to changing market conditions, helps to manage demand and is an important tool for strategic planning.
Marketing is one of the componentsmanagement, the manager must understand for whom he produces the goods and how it should be promoted to the buyer. Marketing concepts of the organization are an element of strategic planning. At any level of management, the manager must plan the activities of his organization or department for a relatively distant future, for this he needs to understand where to move. And the marketing concept of management just answers this question. However, it is not a ready-made recipe, in each case the manager needs to analyze the situation on the market and create his own interpretation of the generalized concept. Therefore, work on marketing management is a complex process, including analytical, creative and strategic components.
For the first time, marketing concepts beginForm in the era of the birth of marketing. These were natural reactions to the situation on the market. The conceptualization and formulation of the concepts is already taking place after the producers started using this model. Actually the development of the marketing concept as part of the management activity appears later. Researchers note that the evolution of marketing concepts moves along a trajectory from the goals and requirements of the manufacturer to the needs of the consumer. And the more the markets develop, the more profound interests and characteristics of the consumer are taken into account when planning marketing. The peculiarity of the evolution of marketing concepts is that when new models appear, the old ones do not lose their viability. They may become less effective and then not in all cases. New concepts do not "kill" the old ones, it's just that these "newcomers" become more productive for many spheres of production, but old models continue to work and can be used in some markets.
The first concept of marketing appeared in the periodactive growth of production in the US and Europe in the late 19th century. At that time, the market of sellers dominated, the purchasing power of the population was quite high, and demand in many markets exceeded supply. Then there were no more concepts of marketing analysis, and all marketing goals were focused on production. The interests and needs of the consumer were not taken into account, there was an opinion that a good product would always find its buyer. It was also widely believed that you can sell any quantity of goods. Therefore, the source of the main profit was seen in the increase in production volumes. The main struggle with competitors lay in the price field. Entrepreneurs sought to improve production, increasing volumes and reducing costs. It is during this period that there is a desire to automate production, there is a scientific organization of labor, active searches for cheap raw materials are conducted. During this period, enterprises had a weak diversification, concentrating their resources on the release of one commodity. The concept of improving production is also applicable today in markets where demand exceeds supply, especially with the release of a new product, which is not yet available from competitors.
In the first half of the 20th century, the market graduallyis saturated with goods, but demand is still ahead of supply. This leads to the appearance of a marketing concept of the product. At this time, the production has almost been brought to perfection, the productivity of labor is no longer possible and the idea arises that it is necessary to improve the product. The consumer no longer wants any product, he starts to make claims to his quality, so the manufacturer's task is to improve the product, its packaging and characteristics, and also tell the buyer about it. There is a need for advertising, as an instrument to alert consumers about new and special qualities of the goods. At this time, the idea prevails that the consumer is willing to buy a good product at a reasonable price. Therefore, competition from the sphere of prices is gradually moving into the plane of measuring the properties of products. This concept can be applied even today in those markets where demand is roughly balanced with supply, when there is sufficient purchasing power among the population that is ready to choose a quality product. This concept takes into account such important factors as consumer properties of goods and commodity policy.
In the late 30-ies there is a balancing actdemand and supply in almost all consumer markets. There is a need to make some special efforts in order to attract a buyer. At this time the market of the seller and the buyer is formed. At that time, demand comes to the fore in matters of increasing the company's profit. Goods and production have been maximally improved, but all goods can no longer be sold or sold too slowly. Therefore, the marketing concept of the company should be aimed at improving the sales process. At this time, there are ideas about the stimulation of demand and the special role of points of sale and sellers. In this period, merchandising is formed, as a specific activity to organize sales and stimulate the buyer to purchase at outlets. Manufacturers are already beginning to understand that the goods can not be quickly sold without the cost of advertising. At this time, the formation of the market of advertising services begins. Entrepreneurs have the illusion that with the help of good advertising you can sell anything you like. In this period there is such a special sphere of activity, such as the preparation of sellers, the theory of sales begins to be formulated. Of course, this concept of intensification of commercial efforts can be implemented today in the markets where the consumer does not think about purchasing this product, but has the means to purchase. The purpose of this concept is to develop a sales network, improve sales tools.
In the 1950s, all major marketsfilled with goods, and the period begins when the supply exceeds demand. In this concept, much attention is paid to the consumer and his needs. The manufacturer no longer wants to sell what he managed to produce, but thinks about what the buyer would like and begins to produce it. In this connection the marketing concept of the enterprise undergoes significant changes. Marketers have a lot of resources to spend on studying the characteristics of consumer behavior. They need to know what are the values, needs and interests of the consumer, what is his lifestyle, where he happens, what he is striving for. And on the basis of this knowledge, the entrepreneur formulates his proposal for the buyer. It should be noted that while all the old approaches are preserved: the goods must be of good quality, the production - the most effective, the points of sales should stimulate the buyer to purchase the goods. During this period, the idea of a marketing complex that embraces all levels of the enterprise's activity begins for the first time. In this concept, there is a purely marketing goal - the satisfaction of the needs of the buyer and this builds the opportunity for profit. And the concept marked a global turn of marketing to the buyer, now in all markets the main character is a consumer, and for him the manufacturer does the maximum to lead to a purchase. The consumer now seeks to buy the product that most satisfies his needs. Therefore, the product must exactly meet its requirements. The buyer is even willing to overpay, but to get exactly what he wants.
In the late 1970s, the era of intensive consumption andproduction has led to the fact that the Earth's resources began to be depleted. A powerful social movement is rising in defense of the environment and against excessive consumption. And new marketing concepts could not ignore these changes. A concept of social and ethical marketing is being formed, which is quite actual today. This complex concept requires balancing three principles: the interests of society, the needs and needs of the buyer and the profitability of the business for the entrepreneur. Within the framework of this concept, a special role was assigned to public opinion, the image of the company, on the formation of which the entrepreneur should spend certain resources. At the stage of saturation and glut of the market, consumers begin to understand that endless economic growth leads to serious damage to the environment and he wants the manufacturer to take care to stop hurting nature. This requires companies to modernize production, the introduction of new products in the range, corresponding to new environmental and safety assessments. The goal of the manufacturer in this concept is the introduction of new production standards and convince the buyer of the safety of its products. Also there is such task of marketing as education of the consumer, training to its new standards of life.
In the second half of the 20th century, marketers beganunderstand that it is necessary not only to take into account the needs of the consumer, but also to involve him in the relationship. The consumer is accustomed to standardized relationships, typical situations and they do not cause him emotions. Therefore, for differentiation from competitors, it is necessary to form an individual relationship with the consumer. Interaction with the company creates an emotional bond with the buyer, identifies the manufacturer from a number of similar ones. All previous marketing concepts were guided by logic and reason, and this model is aimed at emotion. In such a concept, an important role begins to be given to communications, the producer establishes individual, trusting relationships by engaging the buyer in interaction. New concepts of marketing communications not only require complex solutions, but are built on the account of the individual characteristics of the buyer. In this concept there is such a concept as the life cycle of the relationship with the buyer. It distinguishes 3 stages: interest in the product, purchase and consumption. In this approach, much attention is paid to postpurchase behavior, in which it is necessary to create a sense of satisfaction with the buyer. The purpose of communications is customer loyalty to a product or brand. Marketers understand that in conditions of glut of the market and fierce competition, it is cheaper to keep the old buyer than to attract a new one.
At the end of the 20th century, marketing starts swiftlydevelop, and there are several concepts that generally fit into the system of interaction model, but they have significant features. Thus, the globalization of markets leads to the emergence of marketing concepts designed for intercultural and interethnic interaction. Establishing relations with representatives of different cultures and nationalities requires a special approach. Specialists distinguish such international concepts of marketing activities as the concept of expanding the domestic market, the concept of a multinational domestic market and the concept of a global market. In each case, the enterprise faces the goal of developing new markets. At the same time, the marketer should build communication taking into account the specifics of the internal and external environment.
At the end of the 20th century, a process ofhighly specialized marketing concepts. One of the brightest models is the innovative option, which is associated with the promotion of high-tech, new products. Like once the marketing concept of the product, this version is based on the fact that the consumer offers an improved product. However, due to the fact that the information environment is changing rapidly today, marketers are promoting digital and innovative products using new methods: Internet tools, integrated communications, social networks. In the innovative concept, the elements of the traditional commodity model, as well as the marketing of relations, organically merged. The goal of marketing is not only to stimulate the buyer to purchase goods, but also his education. Before you sell it, for example, an innovative gadget, you need to form a certain level of competence.
At the end of the 20th century, the global world entered a neweconomy, which is associated with the enormous development of digital technologies. For each person a flurry of information collapses and defensive mechanisms are developed from overload. This leads to the fact that many traditional advertising messages cease to be effective. For example, there are already whole generations of people who do not watch TV, the audience of print media is sharply reduced. In addition, the highest saturation of the market with goods leads to the fact that a person begins to experience difficulties with the choice. A person by nature can not make a choice among 10-120 units of a commodity, and he himself reduces the number of alternatives to 3-5 titles. It focuses on its values, myths, stereotypes that unconsciously control consumer behavior. And the problem here is that the old marketing concepts do not allow achieving the desired goals. And marketers are developing a new model, according to which a person is inspired with thoughts about the value of any goods, a mythology of goods is created, the buyer has a certain pattern of behavior that leads him to purchase goods. Examples of such "introduction" of goods into the unconscious consumer are many. The brightest example is the Apple brand, which creates mythology, its ideology and today there is a whole formation of people convinced that only the goods of this brand are the best and exclusive.
Marketing is always connected with the planning of the futureactivity of the enterprise. The company, seriously thinking about its future development, has its own concept of marketing strategy. Usually such private models include elements of several models: social-ethical, interaction, innovation, commodity or marketing. The main value of the existence of marketing concepts in the ability to use them when developing their own company strategy. All modern concepts of marketing activities are built on integrated communications. And today it is difficult to find a producer who would not use the media mix in his promotion. Therefore, it is precisely the harmonious synthesis of the components of several concepts and allows each manufacturer to find his way to success.