Systems for assessing the effectiveness of staff, based on KPI, are becoming increasingly popular in Russia. The main advantages of such mechanisms are the rational reflection of the activities of companies.
KPI (KPIs) is the English abbreviation of "keyperformance indicators ", in Russian it is referred to as KPI - key indicators (sometimes - parameters) of efficiency. But in the original overseas sound is used as the norm. KPI - a system that allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of employees of the company to achieve goals (strategic and tactical).
"Key indicators" allow the companyanalyze the quality of its structure, the potential for solving problems. On the basis of KPI, a goal management system is also formed. This is the most important factor: if there are no signs of targeting performance indicators, then there is no need to apply "key indicators" to anything. Management by objectives and KPI, thus, are two interrelated phenomena. The first involves primarily forecasting the results of the work, as well as planning how these results will be achieved.
An unequivocal answer to this question is not the historygives, however it is possible to trace, how the world management went to understanding KPIs, what is it and than it is useful. In the late 19th - early 20th century sociologist Max Weber determined that there are two ways of assessing the work of employees: the so-called "sultan" and meritocratic. On the first - the chief ("Sultan") at his own discretion assessed how well a person copes with his duties. The rational beginning here plays a secondary role, the main thing is a purely emotional perception of the work of a subordinate.
A meritocratic method is when the resultslabor are estimated on real achievements, with connection of mechanisms of objective measurements. This approach was adapted by management theorists in Western countries and gradually crystallized into what we know as the KPI system. The work of Peter Drucker, who is believed to have turned management into a scientific discipline, played an important role in systematizing the rational evaluation of personnel work. The concepts of the scientist explicitly state that there are goals, and there is an assessment of the degree of their achievement through key performance indicators.
The main positive side of the KPI system -presence of a mechanism of labor assessment that is transparent for all employees of the company and the work of the enterprise as a whole. This allows the authorities to assess the performance of all subordinate structures in real time, to predict how tasks will be accomplished and the goal will be achieved. The next plus of KPI is that the management team has a tool for correcting the work of subordinates, if the current results are lagging behind the planned ones.
If, for example, on the basis of the measurement of activitiesin the first half of the year, it is revealed that such performance parameters are not high enough, then workshops are held to identify the reasons and encourage employees to do better work after the next six months. Another positive side of KPI is the feedback between the specialist and the supervisor. The first will receive not just manuals and sometimes nonsensical quibbles, but well-grounded remarks, the second - improving performance by specifying errors and shortcomings in the work performed by the subordinate.
The results of the KPI assessments (indicatorsefficiency as such) can not be interpreted correctly, and this is the most important shortcoming of this system. As a rule, the probability of occurrence of such a problem is lower, the higher the attention will be at the stage of forming criteria for how to evaluate the parameters of efficiency. Another disadvantage of KPI - the company, in order to implement this system, will have to spend a lot of resources (estimated, as a rule, in time, labor and finances). It is, of course, the work on key parameters of the effectiveness of the proper level of elaboration. There is a possibility that it will be necessary to conduct large-scale retraining of employees: specialists - for changing tasks, and therefore for working conditions, management also has to learn new methods of assessing the work of subordinates. The firm may not be ready to give the team extra time to learn new things.
The main task in the implementation of the KPI system ("withzero ") - not to allow negative attitude to it from the part of employees. Therefore, the management of the firm needs to intelligibly communicate the meaning and practical use of innovations to each of the subordinates, whose work is subject to subsequent evaluation for effectiveness. The best methodology here, according to some experts from the field of HR - individual presentation, explanation to specialists on specific positions: KPIs - what is it and why to introduce this system in the company.
The error will be unconditional plantingparameters of efficiency in an orderly manner, however, the necessary step is the treatment by the first persons of the company. If, for example, the line manager informs subordinates in his division about the imminent introduction of KPI, then this information must be confirmed also by the CEO. The specialist should understand that the system of key performance parameters is not an invention of the boss, but an element of the strategic policy of the whole firm.
In the expert environment, there is an opinion that indicatorsKPI, in the case of the system, should be implemented on a one-off basis at all levels of company management - from ordinary specialists to top managers. According to this point of view, the timing of the introduction of key performance parameters can not be stretched over time: the system starts working immediately. The only question is how to optimally choose the time of its launch. There is a point of view that it is enough to notify employees about the fact of KPI start in about three months. This is enough to ensure that the company's personnel have studied the specifics of the future evaluation of the effectiveness of their work.
Also there is the thesis that for a while KPI canWork in parallel with the previous system of payment. Depending on the degree of liberalism of the bosses, the employee will be able to choose himself, according to which scheme he will receive a salary. You can motivate a person to work on a new KPI at the expense of bonuses and bonuses, the terms of which will be clearly spelled out in key parameters.
Actually, as such implementation of mechanisms KPIseveral stages of preparatory work precede. Firstly, this is the period associated with the formulation of strategic goals that are put before the company. Within the same phase of work, the general concept is divided into tactical areas, the effectiveness of which is to be measured. Secondly, it is the development of key performance indicators, the definition of their essence. Thirdly, it is work on the distribution of official powers associated with the implementation of the system, so that each responsible asked a question such as "KPIs - what is this?"
Thus, all indicators will be fixedfor specific persons (units) in the firm. Fourth, you may need to adjust the current business processes (if required by the updated strategy). Fifthly, it is the development of a new system of employee motivation, the creation of formulas for calculating wages on a fresh basis. After all these procedures are performed, you can start the KPI system.
As mentioned above, KPI - key indicatorsefficiency, inseparably related to the company's goals. The quality of targeting is the main requirement for the KPI system. Goals can be formed according to different principles, but one of the most popular in the HR-environment is the SMART concept. Means "specific", "measurable", "achievable", "relevant to the result", "time-bound", and, as a result, giving the worked and quality KPIs.
Examples of goals that meet these criteria: "To open so much (measurable) retail outlets (specific) in the city (relevant) in the first quarter (time-bound)", or "to sell so many air tickets to a certain country in three weeks." Each goal should be divided into tasks, which, in turn, are reduced to the level of personal KPIs (for employees or departments). The optimal number, according to some experts, is 6-8.
One of the factors of successful implementation of KPI istechnological infrastructure. Since the key performance parameters are a set of rational indicators, the computer will work very well with them. There are many software solutions for managing KPI. The features available in such distributions are quite extensive. First, it is a convenient presentation of information (in the form of graphs, analytics, documentation) about the processes associated with KPIs. What does it give? Mainly, the unity of the perception of data, the reduction in the probability of misinterpretation of figures. Secondly, it is the automation of collection and calculation of performance indicators. Thirdly, it is a multidimensional (with very large amounts of figures) analysis, which a person without a program will be difficult to perform. Fourthly (in the presence of network infrastructure), this is the exchange of information between individual employees and the establishment of feedback channels "boss-subordinate."