Nichrome spirals: characteristics, application

Nichrome was invented in 1905 by AlbertMarch, which connected nickel (80%) and chromium (20%). Today there are about ten modifications of alloys of different brands. As additional alloying impurities are added aluminum, manganese, iron, silicon, titanium, molybdenum, etc. Due to its outstanding qualities, this metal has become widely used for the production of electrical engineering.

nichrome spirals

The main qualities of nichrome

Nichrome is different:

  • high heat resistance. At high temperatures, its mechanical properties do not change;
  • plasticity, which makes it possible to produce from the alloy nichrome spirals, wires, tapes, threads;
  • simplicity of processing. Products from nichrome are well welded, stamped;
  • high resistance to corrosion in various environments.
  • the resistance of the nichrome is high.

resistance of nichrome

Basic properties

  • Density is 8200-8500 kg / m3.
  • The melting point of nichrome is 1400 ° C.
  • The maximum operating temperature is 1100 ° C.
  • Strength - 650-700 MPa.
  • Specific resistance of nichrome 1,05-1,4 Ohm.

wire x20n80

Marking of nichrome wire

Nichrome wire is an excellent material forvarious electric heating elements, which are used in almost all industries. Virtually every household heater has elements made of nichrome.

Lettering of the wire:

  • "H" - is used, as a rule, in heating elements.
  • "C" is used in resistance elements.
  • "TEN" - is intended for tubular electric heaters.

According to domestic standards, there are several main brands:

  • Double wire Х20Н80. The composition of the alloy includes: nickel - 74%, chromium - 23%, as well as 1% iron, silicon and manganese.
  • Triple X15N60. The alloy consists of 60% nickel and 15% chromium. The third component is iron (25%). Saturation of the alloy with iron can significantly reduce the cost of nichrome, the price of which is quite high, while maintaining its heat resistance. In addition, it increases its machinability.
  • The cheapest option of nichrome is X25N20. This is an iron-rich alloy in which the mechanical properties are preserved, but the operating temperature is limited to 900 ° C.

nichrome price

Application of nichrome

Due to its quality and uniquecharacteristics nichrome products can be used wherever reliability, strength, resistance to chemically aggressive environments and very high temperatures are needed.

melting point of nichrome

Nichromic spirals and wire arean integral part of almost all types of heating appliances. Nichrome is present in toasters, bakeries, heaters, and ovens. The alloy also found application in resistors and rheostats operating under strong heating. Is nichrome and in electric lamps and soldering irons. Nichromic spirals have heat resistance and significant resistance, which allows them to be used in high-temperature drying and firing ovens.

Finds application and a scrap of nichrome. It is melted down, and the material again comes into play. Alloy nickel with chromium is used in chemical laboratories. This composition does not react with most alkalis and acids. Deformed heating nichrome spirals are used in electronic cigarettes.

Compared with the previously used iron for these purposes, products from nichrome are safer, do not spark, do not rust, do not have fused areas.

The melting point of the nichrome is 1400 ° C, so odors and burns are not felt when preparing food.

Engineers are still exploring the unique properties of this material, constantly expanding the scope of its use.

At home, nichrome wireis used to make homemade equipment, jigs and cutters, such as, for example, a machine for cutting foam or wood, a soldering iron, a device for burning wood, welding machines, household heaters, etc.

The most popular wire is X20N80 and X15N60.

cross-section of nichrome wire

Where can I buy nichrome wire

The implementation of this product is carried out inrolls (bays, coils) or in the form of a tape. The cross-section of the nichrome wire can be in the form of an oval, a circle, a square, and also a trapezoid, the diameter is in the range of 0.1 to 1 millimeter.

Where can I buy or buy products from nichrome? We offer to consider the most common and possible options:

  1. First of all, you can contact the organization,making this product and making an order. You can find out the exact address of such enterprises in special reference books on goods and services that are available in practically all major cities and towns. The operator will be able to tell where to buy and give the phone number. In addition, information on the assortment of such products can be found on official websites of manufacturers.
  2. You can buy nichrome products in specialized shops, for example, selling radio components, material for masters such as "Skillful hands", etc.
  3. Buy from private individuals, selling radio parts, spare parts and other metal products.
  4. In any hardware store.
  5. In the market you can buy some old device, for example a laboratory rheostat, and take it with nichrome.
  6. Nichrome wire can also be found at home. For example, it is from it that a spiral of electric tiles is made.

If you need to make a big order, thenthe first option is most suitable. If you need a small amount of wire from nichrome, in this case, you can consider all the other items on the list. When buying, be sure to pay attention to the marking.

coiled nichrome spiral

Nichrome coiling

Today the nichrome spiral is one of thebasic elements of many heating appliances. After cooling with nichrome it is able to maintain its plasticity, so that a spiral made of such material can be easily removed, its shape changed or, if necessary, adjusted to a suitable size. The winding of the spiral in industrial conditions is carried out automatically. At home, you can also carry out manual winding. Let us consider in more detail how to do this.

If the parameters of the finishednichrome spiral in its working condition, when winding, you can calculate, so to speak, "by eye". To do this, you need to select the desired number of turns depending on the heating of the nichrome wire, while including periodically spiraling into the network and decreasing or increasing the number of turns. This winding procedure is very simple, but it can take a lot of time, and some of the nichrome is wasted.

To increase the simplicity and accuracy of calculating the winding of the spiral, you can use a special online calculator.

Having calculated the necessary number of turns, you canto start winding the rod. Without cutting the wire, you should carefully connect the nichrome spiral to the voltage source. Then check the correctness of the calculations for winding the spiral. It is important to take into account that for coiled-type spirals, the winding length should be increased by a third of the value obtained in the calculation.

To ensure the same distance betweenadjacent coils need to enter winding in 2 wires: one - nichrome, the second - any copper or aluminum, with a diameter that is equal to the desired gap. When the winding is finished, the auxiliary wire should be carefully wound.

Cost of Nichrome

The only drawback that Nichrome has isprice. So, a two-component alloy when buying at retail is estimated at about 1000 rubles per kilogram. The cost of nichrome stamps with a ligature is about 500-600 rubles.

Conclusion

Choosing products from nichrome, it is necessaryto take into account the data on the chemical composition of the product of interest, its electrical conductivity and resistance, the physical characteristics of the diameter, cross-section, length, etc. It is also important to inquire about compliance documentation. In addition, you need to be able to visually distinguish the alloy from its, so to speak, "competitors". The correctness of the choice of material is the key to reliability of electrical engineering.

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