In sociology and management theory organizationsa special place is given to the problem of leadership. The main principle of management is still one-man management. It means that the right of decision, power, the ability to control relationships and processes, responsibility in the organization is always granted to only one particular official. But he physically can not carry out all this in full, therefore he delegates some of his powers to his subordinates. This creates hierarchical structures in which everyone has a leader, but not all, but only a few - subordinates.
There are a lot of organizational problems, but the methodologymaking management decisions is extremely important. Many sociologists consider the organization to be nothing more than a management tool. Therefore, its activities are associated with the preparation and further implementation of various managerial decisions. The economic effectiveness of management decisions determines the effectiveness of management in general.
Before considering the methods of adoptionmanagement decisions, it is necessary to understand that in the sociological literature one can see different points of view as to which decisions are considered managerial. First of all, these are those that affect relations in any organization. Management decisions are usually associated with various changes in the organization, and their initiator is the relevant body or person who is fully responsible for all possible consequences of implemented and controlled decisions.
Management decision - is the resultspecific activities of the manager. This creative process, taking place in the activities of leaders at any level. It begins with the development and setting of goals, then the problem is studied on the basis of information obtained in various ways. Further, the criteria of effectiveness or effectiveness, as well as the possible consequences of these decisions, are selected and justified. Next comes the stage of discussing various options for solving the problem or task with specialists. In the process, an optimal decision is chosen and formulated, it is adopted and specified for the performers.
Methods of making managerial decisions are always aimed at achieving the intended, specific goals. They can be diverse.
First, a method that is based exclusively onon the intuition of the manager. It is due to the fact that he has the accumulated experience and the amount of knowledge in a particular, precisely this field of activity. Actually, all this allows you to choose, and then to make the right and right decision.
Secondly, the methods of making managerial decisionsIt is impossible to imagine without a method that is based on a concept called "common sense". In this case, the manager makes decisions and justifies them with very consistent evidence.
Third, a method that is based onscientific and practical approach is also very important. He suggests choosing the optimal solution solely on the basis of processing a huge amount of information and justifying it. This method requires the mandatory use of modern technology, we are talking about electronic computers.
In any case, the head of thethe problem of choosing the appropriate solution will arise later. It is one of the main in modern management science. The leader must himself comprehensively assess the specific situation, choose the appropriate methods for making managerial decisions, and with their help to dwell on one of several possible options. He is responsible for their further execution.