International trade and foreign trade policyin the service sector is becoming an increasingly important and fast-growing segment of foreign economic relations. In recent decades, its volume has exceeded the level of more than 4 trillion. In the global turnover, the share of services is 20%, where 1/3 is the tourism sector. In addition, the growth in trade in services is 25% ahead of the growth in world trade in goods. In Russia, the turnover of trade in services in 2010 exceeded the cost of 2.5 billion dollars.
International trade and trade policy inThe sphere of services assumes features, first of all, in their geographical distribution. About 70% of the cost of all exported services falls on the USA, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, France, etc. These countries specialize mainly in providing services in finance, communications, tourism, culture and education. Developing countries either specialize in the provision of certain types of services, for example tourism (Jamaica), transit (Panama), etc., or act as exporters of raw materials and trade in services accounts for no more than 10% of total exports (Iran, Angola).
In Belarus, for example, foreign trade and tradethe policy is still asymmetric, where more than 70% of exports and 40% of imports are transport services. Further on the volumes of foreign trade are construction services, communication services. Tourist services can become a promising export item for the republic, but at present their share in exports does not exceed 3%.
Foreign trade and trade policy in the exchange of services provides for a number of patterns and trends of development.
First, it continues to improvestructure of the service sector: new species are emerging; actively differentiated as an object of trade types of services, previously had an auxiliary character; there are large integrated companies appearing in the market, supplying the "package" of services to the consumer.
Secondly, the development of trade in services occursalso thanks to changes in technology. Hence the following trend - the strengthening of the role of information technology. Changes in the field of information technology, the liberalization of trade in services and many other factors lead to the following trend - the growing internationalization of business activity. And this is manifested, first of all, in the activities of TNCs in the world market of services. Foreign trade and trade policy of the United States, for example, is built on the production of services mainly abroad.
One of the most important trends in the development of trade in services remains the reduction of barriers in international trade and investment.
Thus, in the 21st century, foreign trade andtrade policy in the service sector continue to develop dynamically and play an increasingly prominent role. This directly determines the country's foreign trade image and the state of its currency position. This dependence is manifested in the following:
The success of foreign trade causes the economic situation in the country.
There is a positive relationship between the exchange rate and the volume of foreign trade, but the exchange rate is not the only factor affecting foreign trade.
With the cheaper currency there is an increase in exports.
The weakening of the currency is due to an increase in interest rates, and this is a very disastrous mechanism for the economy: loans are becoming more expensive.
Participants in international trade are interested in a stable exchange rate, the changes of which are consistent and predictable.
In a market economy, the exchange ratereflects the real macroeconomic indicators of the country, and its change can only stimulate foreign trade without being a decisive factor in its growth.
The growth of trade depends on the state of affairs at the enterprises themselves: high quality, low cost and competent sales increase the competitiveness of national goods and stimulate the growth of trade.