The essence of any activity is manifested in itsfunctions. They imply the purposeful assignment of the activities of any organization or its common task, the type of management actions and the sphere of making specific decisions.
The main functions of management, certainHenri Fayol in 1916, are planning, organization, control and coordination. However, the effectiveness of any economic-production process can not be determined only by these basic functions. No less important factor than an effective organizational structure, agreed goals and clearly set tasks, is the quality of work that directly depends on people. To increase it, motivation is used. Motivation as a function of management is directly related to encouraging staff to work effectively through the formation of motives. Motivation is a conscious choice of a person of one or another type of behavior, therefore motivation as a function of management should be directly aimed at increasing the labor activity of workers.
Motivation as a function of management helps to develop and improve ways to maximize the result of work on the basis of a clear presentation of the characteristics of the behavior of personnel.
In the process of working out the most effective waysTo achieve results, it is necessary to use interrelated categories of behavior: needs, interests, motivations and actions. To do this, managers and managers use certain methods, through which the management impact on personnel is carried out. They are directly based on the laws of management, since they suggest using different forms of influence on the personnel of the organization. Methods of motivation in management are of an economic and non-economic nature. Economic methods consist in the material stimulation of workers through changes in the level of wages, the issuance of bonuses or monetary compensation. Non-economic ones include organizational ones, that is, those that allow the employee to participate in the organizational activities of the company, and moral and psychological. Moral and psychological stimuli include praise, approval, or vice versa, the recognition of merit. The main demotivators that directly affect the quality of work are: incompetence of the leader, undeserved criticism, congestion or underload, obscurity of job functions or functions of the company.
Many human resources specialists useclassical theories of motivation, but they can not give the proper effect, if they are not adapted to the needs of a particular organization. An effective system of motivation should use different types of motivation in management.
There are different types of motivation dependingfrom the main feature. For example, if the feature is a group of needs, then the motivation can be divided into material, labor and status. While material motivation directs a person to prosperity, labor motivation is directly connected with self-realization, and the status motivation consists in the desire to become an acknowledged and respected specialist, the leader of the collective or the leader. By sources of origin, internal and external motivation is distinguished. Depending on the predominant method of motivation, the normative (ideological and psychological impact), compulsory (power) motivation and stimulation are singled out.
Motivation as a function of management is aimed at building a motivation system that simultaneously takes into account the goals of the organization, its management and employees.