Liquidity of a balance is the availability of negotiablemeans in such size that it was sufficient for repayment of short-term obligations of this enterprise. Liquidity is the basis for the solvency of each enterprise, that is, its ability and ability to fully and timely fulfill its own payment obligations. An important characteristic that influences the conditions and forms of transactions, incl. the ability to get a loan is solvency.
The time required for the transformation of assets intoThe monetary form (liquidity of assets) must coincide in time with the terms of repayment of the enterprise's liabilities. Liquidity indicators in most countries are regulated by legislation, that is, a specific list of indicators is established and their criteria levels are determined. To assess the performance of enterprises, the liquidity indicators are used that determine the permissible ratios of individual passive and active balance sheet items, as well as the relationships within the structure of liabilities and bank assets.
Such a system, as a rule, includesthe following liquidity indicators: long-term, current and short-term liquidity. Liquidity indicators reflect the mobility of assets, the stability of liabilities, the correspondence between active and passive operations, the ability of an enterprise to fulfill its obligations.
In Russia, as well as in other countries, introducedliquidity norms of balances. To assess the financial stability of the company along with absolute indicators of solvency and liquidity, the relative liquidity ratios of the organization are also calculated.
The main liquidity indicators used in the Russian analysis:
The structure of economic indicators includes absolute and relative indicators of liquidity. Absolute indicators are expressed in monetary or natural units, for example, as pieces, weight, volume, dollars, rubles.
Relative indicators are the ratio of two indicators of different or equal dimensions. In the second case, we are talking about dimensionless indicators characterizing ratio, proportion or rate of changespecific economic value, measured in percent or in the fractional terms. In the first case - dimensional indicators that characterize the rate of change of a certain value in a specific period of time, the effectiveness of the use of resources, as well as the sensitivity of a particular value relative to the factor that caused its change.
In general, the liquidity indicators reflect the solvency of the enterprise on its debt obligations.